<![CDATA[The Primary Teacher's Blog - Research: Guided Reading]]>Tue, 07 Nov 2017 12:02:33 -0800Weebly<![CDATA[Guided Reading - a research study]]>Thu, 28 Aug 2014 20:39:02 GMThttp://primary1teacher.com/research-guided-reading/guided-reading-a-research-studyGuided Reading

For anyone who works in a primary school, guided reading is a daily occurrence or a daily tolerance depending on your views. Regardless of your opinion, the 20-30 minutes of daily focused reading forms a big part of our teaching of reading. It looks like it will continue to do so for the foreseeable future. Therefore, this blog will compile the state of guided reading currently, changes in the new curriculum, Ofsted's views on guided reading, DfE publications, current pedagogy and the views of bloggers and twitter (Of course I put the most important people last)

I want to make it clear that I do not agree with a lot of the new curriculum. The following research is in no way a reflection of endorsing the new curriculum. It is a way to reflect on how I think we can make 'a love for reading' the heart of our curriculum and how we can tailor the new curriculum to achieve this. Guided reading does seem to be a good way to show skills are being taught. This research attempts to find ways to marry the best of both worlds so we can continue to meet the governments criteria, but to also teach the way we know benefits children's love for reading in the long term.  

Government publications, Ofsted publications and the effect on Guided Reading

Firstly, the current state of guided reading. Systematically, very little has changed in our provision from the guidelines in the National Literacy Strategy over 10 years ago. 

'Guided reading should be a fundamental part of each school's literacy programme.' (National Literacy Strategy, S1, p. 12)

It may be called guided reading still, it may not be called guided reading in schools, but the strategy of focused group reading is still a fundamental part of the curriculum for literacy and the way we teach reading. It's been integral to the schools I have worked in and I know it is still part of a lot schools' literacy policy.

'Approximately 20 minutes guided group and independent work.'

'To enable the teacher to teach at least one group per day, differentiated by ability, for a sustained period through guided reading...;

In ability groups of four to six, pupils should have individual copies of the same text.' (National Literacy Strategy, S1, p. 12)

Guided reading in most schools is every day for 20-30 minutes. It is very structured. It will have its own slot and be expected to be taught. In a class of 30 this means groups of 6 normally. Most schools have made a provision for guided reading texts and they will normally come in packs around 6. In light of Carol Dweck's growth mindset, many schools have scrapped ability grouping. However, guided reading is the one area that seems to still be clinging onto group differentiation by ability. If guided reading is taught in a primary school, very little will have changed from this timetabled model.

'To enable other pupils to work independently - individually, in pairs or in groups - without recourse to the teacher.' (National Literacy Strategy, S1, p. 12)

The structure of the session itself has also changed very little. With one group working with the teacher, 4 groups are normally given work to complete. The remaining days might be split between independent work, partner work or whole group work. Children are given the opportunity to work independently from the teacher and this seemed to be the key goal of the strategy.

As with every change in curriculum or publication, schools often eagerly await Ofsted's opinion, it was no different with guided reading. In 2004 Ofsted published 'Reading for purpose and pleasure - An evaluation of the teaching of reading in primary schools'. They immediately highlighted the need for schools to evaluate its impact upon reading. Progress during guided reading sessions became important. It was clear to Ofsted that:

'...too many teachers taught guided reading ineffectively and it became little more than pupils reading around the group in turn.' also

Lack of differentiation meant lack of progress. Lack of resources meant incorrect pitching. Guided reading went from a strategy for the explicit teaching of reading skills and enjoyment to another period of the day where teachers needed to show progress. It was no longer good enough to cite the fact that children were reading more, being exposed to more texts. Progress was needed.

The independent activities got a particular slating, they said that guided reading:

'...took too little account of the needs of other groups in the class and the tasks set for them lacked challenge. In some instances, pupils were left to their own devices to read silently or share books. Although some enjoyed the opportunity, others merely flicked through their books with little apparent interest.'

I think that could be argued as a criticism of low-expectations by the teacher for the independent activities as opposed to a criticism of the strategy itself, but regardless, scrutiny increased.

The Rose Review, 2006, highlighted a few areas of guided reading. It highlighted the need for guided reading to be taught within the literacy teaching and not as a separate entity. The activities, texts and skills taught in guided reading should have relevance to the area of the curriculum being taught during literacy lessons.

'In the session, the teacher guides the children through a text, prompting them to apply the knowledge and skills they have learned elsewhere in the reading curriculum.' (Rose Review, 2006, p. 11)

This sounds relatively sensible and straightforward. However, some wording of the review did send schools into a learning objective overload.

'The success of the guided reading session depends on the teacher being clear a the purpose of the session and its specific learning objectives.' (Rose Review, 2006, p. 11)

Some schools made sure every single group, while completing their differentiated activity, had a separate learning objective. A clear learning intention is important, Rose did state that, likewise, the extent to which this increased the teachers workload was clear.

Schools took on the advice of Rose when deciding the independent activities. They revolved around what Rose highlighted as the: ‘simple view of reading’ it recommended separating the learning activities into:

• those who have good comprehension but poor word recognition skills

• those who have good word recognition skills but poor comprehension

• those who are weak in both the above

• those who are strong in both the above

(Rose Review, 2006, p. 11)

Some schools decided it was just best to have teachers plan 5 different activities for each guided reading session, using the guidelines above. The increase in workload was not sustainable, it caused teachers questioned the impact of guided reading even more.

Ofsted's: 'Responding to the Rose Review: schools' approaches to the systematic teaching of phonics, 2008', although taking nearly 2 years to complete, did little to clarify the guided reading situation. Perhaps the view of guided reading had changed. Receiving nothing to the contrary, schools continued to teach guided reading under the structure of the National Literacy Strategy.

Schools had to wait until the publication of 'English at the Crossroads, 2009'  before guided reading received any true attention. Even then, in true Ofsted fashion, it came in the form of 'What we don't like to see'.

'...group ‘guided reading’ was taught as a discrete activity, separated from the pupils’ overall reading experience. Therefore, although there was a great deal of activity related to reading, it was not always integrated effectively or directed sufficiently at producing enthusiastic, independent readers.' (English at the Crossroads, Ofsted: 2009, p.23)

This would appear to be a step in the right direction. Ofsted clearly saw guided reading as a way of producing enthusiastic, independent readers. Perhaps they weren't as focused on progress as we thought. Perhaps they valued the way in which children should acquire a love for reading. Of course not, but there was some hope. Ofsted highlighted a need for:

'More schools were using guided reading as a way of developing close reading skills, with texts matched to pupils’ abilities.' (English at the Crossroads, Ofsted: 2009, p.23)

These guidelines still gave apparent freedom to make love of reading the center of the philosophy of guided reading. There was a clear need for skills, but the skills in order to read didn't seem too bad.

Ofsted's: 'Reading by Six'  made reference to the structure of guided reading still being 20-30 minutes but they we're complacent with just that. Ofsted stated that assessment and book work was to be part of guided reading.

'Guided reading is assessed as pupils work within their group, and their progress is recorded in their individual profile books. The books chart each pupil's progress as a reader...assessment then feeds directly into planning.' (Reading by Six, Ofsted 2010, p. 37)

Although the recording of guided reading sessions was only referred to as 'profile books', it wasn't long before Ofsted started commenting on the good practice of schools who show the progress of reading through books. Using 'opportunities for children to reflect on their journey' and 'Providing evidence for assessment' soon meant that the norm for profile books was now rolled across the whole school. It was not uncommon for schools to have a literacy and a guided reading book. Both of these would, of course, have to be marked by the teacher. Planning would have to reflect assessments taken during guided reading sessions. Records of children's attainment during guided reading meant a lot of teachers spent time making notes and assessing instead of listening to children read.

Guided reading was embedded in the practice of schools. After the phonics programme, it was the way of continuing the teaching of reading to children. It allowed teachers to be confident they heard every child read at least once week and they were confident they had records to prove progress in reading. The next major reports from Ofsted on literacy did little to change this. 'Removing barriers to literacy, 2011'  and the publication of a case study of good literacy provision 'Castle View Primary School, 2011' made only a passing mention.

It wasn't until Ofsted's: 'Excellence in English, 2011' that an alternative to guided reading was given full publication. George Eliot Primary School, Westminster:

 '...has replaced the more common primary school policy of guided reading with a group reading programme which it has adapted to suit the needs of its pupils. The principle behind this approach is that sharing observations and interpretations enhances what any pupil can do individually.  Central to the programme is that children think of their own questions to discuss with their peers. This develops reading comprehension alongside independence and thinking skills.' (Excellence in English, Ofsted, 2011, p. 21)

This was a good example of a school taking the curriculum into their own hands. Taking a very structured activity like guided reading and modelling it on their own needs very clearly had benefits. The group reading strategy they used is similar to the shared reading method. The whole class works on a text together, they aid and support each other's progress. Moving away from using rigid guided reading sessions appealed to many schools and they decided this way of supporting the whole class through a text could work. Ofsted were clear that the provision needed to be differentiated and progress needed to be shown (as always). The difficulty was, having enough books for a whole class, being able to choose a text which could be differentiated and keep the pace of progress while ensuring all children have a chance to read the text.

Even in light of new approaches to the way guided reading could be taught, several reports still identified problems with the sessions. These were highlighted in English at the Crossroads, 2009. Ofsted's: Reading, Writing and Communication (Literacy), 2011:

'They used a range of strategies but, often, in a fragmented way. For example, ‘guided reading’ (targeted reading activities in small groups, often adult-led) was often taught as a discrete activity and not linked to reading in English lessons.' (Reading, Writing and Communication (Literacy), Ofsted, 2011, p. 25)

The most recent major report by Ofsted 'Moving English Forward, 2012' went even further in criticism.

'Many primary schools in particular appear to believe that guided reading in itself will improve standards, although few have clear approaches to evaluating the impact of the sessions. The important question for schools is not whether they make use of a guided reading approach but how effective it is. (''Moving English Forward, Ofsted, 2012, p. 29')

Ofsted inspections prior to this report had made this very clear anyway but it was now there in black and white. They weren't saying they wanted to see guided reading, they wanted to see the teaching of reading. If you decided to teach reading through structured guided reading sessions then it was very important for you to show its time value and impact on progress. Frequent comments by inspectors that '2.5 hours of guided reading a week could be used for two hours of literacy sessions' didn't help to clarify the matter. Was there some consolation in the report? Perhaps. It seemed a token gesture for Ofsted to add in:

"...to evaluate whether the change had led to higher standards in reading or greater enjoyment of reading." (''Moving English Forward, Ofsted, 2012, p. 37')

So there was still mention of that old 'love for reading', hidden of course in between calls for greater assessment, evaluation and progress.

There has been the release of two videos in 2013 titled: 'Literacy: a non-negotiable - Building on firm foundations and Reading for meaning', the one focused on guided reading was a video of a year 2 class. It showed an example of a teacher during their 'focus guided group'. It did not show what other children in the class would be doing, or how the teacher manages the class during guided reading sessions. However, it does show what a 'model' guided group session looks like. The inspector made it very clear that developing a child's skill in reading across the curriculum is very important. The inspector stated that guided reading was still a good platform for teaching it. The observation raised the strategies that were good when improving the skills of reading:

·       Makes reference to previous learning, previous books or texts that they've looked at. Can you make an similarities?

·       Imagine a story before you read it. Form of recap or prediction of a story.

·       Push children on key skills i.e. 'using the text for evidence'.

·       When children struggle decoding words but get to the end of the sentence, get them to re-read the sentence again to help develop fluency and confidence.

·       Asking the children to speak in 'different voices' develops language of expression.

·       Using technical vocabulary i.e. 'can you give me a synonym for that word?'

·       Some independent reading during the teacher-led session for children to apply strategies learnt.

The next full report by Ofsted regarding English is due in 2015. However, this will be too soon to for the regulator to assess the impact of the changed curriculum. Therefore, this is a good point to try to understand how the changes in the new curriculum could affect guided reading.  

The New Curriculum and Guided Reading

I have highlighted the areas that I think apply to guided reading. I decided that the areas not included in these bullet points are easier taught in literacy lessons. Therefore, these are the skills, which in my opinion, would be best taught in group-focused guided reading.

Reading for Year 1+2:

§  read aloud accurately books that are consistent with their developing phonic knowledge and that do not require them to use other strategies to work out words

This could very well take the form of a shared reading session in class. I think the new curriculum is still looking for differentiation within the teaching of reading. Guided reading provides a platform for children to read aloud, gain confidence and get the support they need on a very regular basis.

§  re-read these books to build up their fluency and confidence in word reading.

This could be in the form of a follow-up activity to the teacher-led guided reading session. Building a fluency and learning by heart seem to be a big part of the new curriculum.

§  participate in discussion about what is read to them, taking turns and listening to what others say

This is probably the area of the curriculum that lends itself closely to guided reading. Small groups, with the teacher facilitating the learning, is a good medium for discussion, taking turns forces children to listen to others. The books are tailored to the child, they can access the content. With coaching and teaching they should be able to contribute to the discussion. This may not be the case during shared reading and whole class literacy lessons.

§  explain clearly their understanding of what is read to them.

Children need to be read to. This often takes the form of the teacher, guided reading sessions allow for children to listen to other children read. Not only reading per se, but read books that they themselves can access. It is powerful when a child doesn't have to focus on decoding and engages in the comprehension. This is supported by differentiated texts.

Reading for Year 3+4

§  At this stage, teaching comprehension should be taking precedence over teaching word reading directly.

Small, focused guided reading sessions allow for the transfer from decoding to comprehension. There is a support network from other children around them, usually of very similar ability. They don't feel the pressure that whole class scenarios sometimes pose. They can build up the confidence to read in front of their peers of similar ability, without criticism and move onto different situations during a literacy lesson when they feel more confident.

§  using dictionaries to check the meaning of words that they have read

Guided reading is a good way in which teachers can teach the skill of using a dictionary. Children feel empowered when they use a dictionary that is purposeful. If it aids in their ability to comprehend a text that is pitched to their level, they are much more interested to do so. A child who has to use a dictionary often, will not feel confident, fluent or engaged. Guided reading allows for texts to be pitched at 80-90% of their language ability. 

§  asking questions to improve their understanding of a text

§  participate in discussion about both books that are read to them and those they can read for themselves, taking turns and listening to what others say.

§  They should help to develop, agree on, and evaluate rules for effective discussion. The expectation should be that all pupils take part.

Smaller contact groups means more opportunities to ask questions. More opportunities to be involved in discussion. More likelihood of having something to say. Of course this would be encouraged during literacy lessons, however by the nature of time it just isn't possible. In guided reading sessions, children feel they have your focus. You 'appear' to be not worrying about the other 24 children, only the group you have. Children are more willing to ask questions when they feel comfortable to make mistakes. If they work with a similar group of children every day this is more likely to happen. During the time you are not with them, they should be confident to discuss with their peers. The new curriculum placed emphasis upon discussion and debate. To get this from children in year 3 and 4, they need to be confident and to have had the skills developed on, as close as possible, an individual basis.

Reading for Year 5+6

§  At this stage, there should be no need for further direct teaching of word reading skills for almost all pupils.

§  discuss and evaluate how authors use language, including figurative language, considering the impact on the reader  

§  participate in discussions about books that are read to them and those they can read for themselves, building on their own and others’ ideas and challenging views courteously

§  explain and discuss their understanding of what they have read, including through formal presentations and debates, maintaining a focus on the topic and using notes where necessary

§  ask questions to improve their understanding of what they have read

§  provide reasoned justifications for their views.

These points are relatively the same as years 3 and 4. The points I made before cover the reasons for guided reading in years 5 and 6. Except for:

§  recommending books that they have read to their peers, giving reasons for their choices

This is perfect for a guided reading session. Children have the time to discuss reading and recommend books to others. To achieve this on a regular basis, developing the skills over the whole year, the logistics are much better served during guided reading. One of the sessions every week or fortnight can be dedicated to this. Often what happens is, if you don't schedule for it, it is the first to disappear. Guided reading forces this time to be used for these skills. 

In conclusion to this section on the new curriculum, I value the place guided reading has in delivering some of the key skills that need to be taught. However, what I value more is the way in which guided reading can deliver the new curriculum but also bring back 'reading for pleasure' or 'a love for reading'. These shouldn't be educational clichés, they should be the bedrock of the curriculum. The way in which discussion is emphasised, the way in which independence is emphasised means that we can move guided reading away from being structured follow-up independent activities and actually make them about reading the book. What has driven my opinion on the value of guided reading is pedagogy, current research and reading about the developments during the 1980s. The studies in America where guided reading plays an equal part to the teaching of reading have been important.   

Educational Research: Guided Reading

A lot of studies came out of America in the 1980s and 1990s. The most comprehensive and forward thinking was by Fountas and Pinnell. It was Pinnell's first complete study of guided reading and it began an interest that has dominated the field of research ever since. The study sought a balance between the teaching of literacy and separate reading programmes. It called for the brining together of guided reading and literacy. It also showed considerable research of the value of guided reading when used in collaboration with shared reading.

This was followed an influential study by Hornsby, D (2000). Hornsby provided practical information and resources for the implementation into the classroom. Schulman and Payne (2000) provided lesson plans and assessment information. Opitz and Ford (2001) provided alternative practice to guided reading.

Several studies sought to look at the impact of guided reading on reading progress. Burkins, J.M., & Croft, M.M. (2010) highlighted that guided reading's success lies in its skills for comprehension, giving children independence and enjoyment for reading. Ford, M.P., & Opitz, M.F. (2008) provided a good study over time, citing that as long as a few principles were adhered to, guided reading does have a significant impact of the reading provision in schools.

·        Working with small groups

·        Matching student reading ability to text levels

·        Giving everyone in the group the same text

·        Introducing the text

·        Listening to individuals read

·        Prompting students to integrate their reading processes

·        Engaging students in conversations about the text

A guidance for a general structure of guided reading session was also given:

§  Familiar rereading—Observe and make notes while students read books from earlier guided reading lessons. 

§  Introduction—Ask students to examine the book to see what they notice. Support students guiding themselves through a preview of the book and thinking about the text. Students may notice the book’s format or a particular element of the print.

§  Reading practice—Rotate from student to student while they read quietly or silently. Listen closely and make anecdotal notes. Intervene and prompt rarely, with broad questions like “What will you do next?” 

§  Discussion—Let students talk about what they noticed while reading. Support their efforts to think deeply and connect across the whole book. For example, a student may notice that an illustration opening the text shows ingredients in a pantry, and at the end, they are all over the kitchen.

§  Teaching point—Offer a couple of instructions based on observations made during reading. Teaching points are most valuable when pointing to new things that students are demonstrating or ask for reflection on how they solved problems

Pinnell and Fountas are arguably the leading figures on guided reading. They've brought together the studies concerning groupings, literacy skills, independence, paired work, pitching of texts, engagement and motivation and most importantly a love for reading. I recommend reading their paper in 2010 which summarised the current climate on guided reading and gave its underlying principles. It can be read here:

I have chosen to bring together all of the pedagogical studies on guided reading to influence my selection of the principles with the most impact. I have taken into account the new curriculum, which was not available to Pinnell and Fountas at the time of publication.

Priciples of guided reading (G. S. Pinnell and I. C. Fountas, 2010)

1) Teaching of comprehension through skills

In all groups, no matter what the level is, teachers teach for a full range of strategic actions: word solving, searching for and using information, self-monitoring and correcting, summarizing information, maintaining fluency, adjusting for purpose and genre, predicting, making connections (personal, other texts, and world knowledge), synthesizing, inferring, analyzing, and critiquing.

2) Text matched to support progress

Discussion of the meaning is grounded in the text and expands thinking. Groups are dynamic; they change in response to assessment and student need; they are flexible and fluid. Not matched to 'ability' but matched to making progress. Subtle difference between; important to note.

3) Provides a focused time for reading

It is normally timetabled, it is expected to be taught and therefore it is taught. Children are exposed to vocabulary, conversation and skills. The teacher incorporates explicit vocabulary instruction and phonics or word work. They benefit from participating in conversations about the texts. (Slavin, 1987). Regardless of how much impact it has, or one's believe on guided reading, it is a guarantee that some form of reading will take place every day. As a result, it increases the amount of time a child spends reading.

4) Creates engagement in and motivation for reading

Reading is one of those skills which, yes can be taught to some extent but, why teach it if you don't teach its value? Why teach a child to learn to read if you don't accompany that with a love for reading? Literacy lessons can be swamped between reading, writing, speaking and listening - often the explicit teaching of reading takes a backseat in favour of writing. You could argue this is because there is a separate guided reading session and therefore literacy lessons focus on writing. That is probably, to some extent, true. However, dedicated timetabling, expectations of teaching mean that reading has a high profile in the classroom.

It would be inappropriate, in my opinion, to talk of pedagogy and of publications (be it Ofsted or the DfE) without talking about teachers themselves.

Blogging and Twitter

In June 2012, ukedchat hosted session 104 - What happens in your Guided Reading sessions? It can be read here. Dedicated guided reading sessions are in the majority and they have a similar purpose and structure to the one described above. What has changed is the use of technology. The summary of the twitter chat provides links to blogging, kindle use, iPads. I recommend seeing how it could positively change your activities. The discussion was relatively positive, with teachers sharing resources and giving their experiences.

In March 2013, ukedchat hosted session 143 - Is guided reading fit for purpose? It highlighted that a carousel of activities is popular with many teachers. The teacher will take their guided group while children engage in activities like, handwriting, spelling and comprehension activities. Very little had changed in the year. Teachers enjoyed giving dedicated time to children. There was a recommendation for flipping the normal structure and have a book group. @StephenConnor7 stated '...the flipped relationship in his school where children lead the sessions by asking the questions, talking about characterisation and offering opinions…' @stjohnscoventry: 'The overwhelming response was that guided reading is,“ great when used together with phonics, reading for pleasure and…[sic] working with parents”

In 2011, David Didau @learningspy wrote a blog: A return to Guided Reading here:

He highlighted the benefits of guided reading when focusing on skills. He stated that:

The CPD session that we eventually put together focussed on re-introducing the Reading Strategies (skimming, scanning, questioning, visualising, close reading, empathising, reading backwards & forwards, predicting & inferring) It fits in fantastically well with my Critical Skills agenda and the need for teachers to get out of the way so that learning can happen.

Two blogs, March and September 2013, by Primary English- Education consultancy gave a range of ideas to help plan meaningful guided reading sessions.

§  Focus

§  Independence

§  Inspire

§  Teacher-pupil balance

§  Flipping the learning

§  Mixing abilities

§  Questioning

A blog by @MrsPTeach does justice to the debate on guided reading. She recognised the way she's reflected about guided reading over the past months and has changed her opinion. She sees the problems of:

§  Independent Groups

§  Too much focus on assessment

§  Group work not focused enough

§  The inconsistency between teaching a child to read during a session and making sure they met the written outcomes for achieving

§  Difficulty in teaching some of the higher-level assessment focuses.

To overcome these, her school moved away from guided reading and went for a whole class approach.

An interesting approach to guided reading has come from @StephenConnor7's flipped lessons. His goal is to take the teacher completely out of the guided reading session. He states that:

'I prepared a bank of questions (linked to each AF, though not levelled) to stimulate discussion within each session, though the expectation was that the children would lead their groups. To begin with, it was very much adult-led; now though, the children do all the work, leaving the adult free to listen, make notes and interject if necessary.'

Another interesting approach to guided reading has come from @StephenConnor7's

use of technology in the sessions. He uses Skype in his sessions to video call other children. The children then talk about their books. This improves engagement, motivation and teaches children a valuable skill of talking about their books. More information can be found here.

I have summarised where guided reading began for education in the United Kingdom. The National Literacy Strategy bought in a wave of structured sessions, guided reading was no different. Subsequent publications by the education regulator, the Department of Education and independent studies have confirmed that guided reading has a place in teaching children the skills of reading. However, it has highlighted certain criteria that needs to be met in order to fully maximise the progress that can be made. Guided reading policy has been largely unchanged since 2003. Recent study on the impact of guided reading has highlighted ways we can improve the provision we provide. Teachers on Twitter and using Blogs have made available brilliant ways to take the principles of guided reading and come up with innovative and engaging strategies which are rooted in giving children the opportunities to have a love for reading. The new primary curriculum introduced in September 2014 could potentially change the way we teach reading in our primary schools. Consequently, this could change guided reading. Although what is clear is that the government is staying quiet on how you teach and only giving criteria of what you should teach. To some degree that gives freedom for schools to continue to use guided reading sessions as a way of teaching skills in reading and as a way of fostering a love of books.

References:

Burkins, J.M., & Croft, M.M. (2010). Preventing misguided reading: New strategies for guided reading teachers. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Ford, M.P., & Opitz, M.F. (2008). Guided reading: Then and now. In M.J. Fresch (Ed.), An essential history of current reading practices (pp. 66-81). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Foundas, I. C., Pinnell, G. S., (1996) Guided Reading: Good First Teaching for All Children.

Hornsby, D (2000) A Closer Look at Guided Reading.

Jim Rose, An independent review of the teaching of early reading, Department for Education and Skills, 2006

McLaughlin, M., & Allen, M.B. (2009). Guided comprehension in grades 3-8 
(Combined 2nd Ed.). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Opitz and Ford (2001) Reaching Readers: Flexible & Innovative Strategies for Guided Reading

Pinnell, G. S. and Fountas, I. C. (2010). Research Base for Guided Reading as an Instructional Approach.

Schulman and Payne (2000) Guided Reading: Making it work.

Slavin, R. E. (1987). Ability grouping: A best-evidence synthesis. Review of Educational Research, 57, 293–336.






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